The 23rd Memorial Lecture

Every year, since its inception, the Foundation invites an eminent person to deliver a lecture on the subject of Patriotism versus Jingoism. Mr. Ramachandra Guha, delivered the 23rd Justice Sunanda Bhandare Memorial Lecture on "Patriotism versus Jingoism " on 1 November 2017.

I am going to speak on patriotism versus jingoism , shreya had introductory remark introduced a third category nationalism. In some ways nationalism is the Mother load from which patriotism and jingoism emerged. Mother have different kind of children and nationalism is the mother load and as a modern invention nationalism begun in 19th century in the continent of Europe. That’s my judgement as a historian but ideologue may dispute that but a historian what is nationalism who have emerged in the 19th century in Europe a century that saw invention of the same continent of the telegraph, rail road and electricity. Nationalism is more arguable influential and more complicated in its manifestation than those scientific inventions.

Now the Europe in model of nationalism had some very clear feature. In Europe in different parts of Europe as the nations that now constitute the European union came into being. The citizens of a particular territory were united on the basis of an allegiance to a common language, a common religion and a common enemy these are the three constitutive elements of European nationalism. So if you read Linda Collins great book Britain’s fording the nation or you read u.n webber equally outstanding work of historical scholarships presence into Frenchman, you get a sense of how Britain and France were formed his model of nation. In britian English was a unifying force a single language so different dialogues Scottish wells Gaelic were kind of either suppressed or homogenized in a standard English likewise religion in England queen is still the head of the church. England so the protestant church allegiance of the protestant church was very important. which meant that catholic were second class citizens and of course Jews were actively persecuted. Go across the channel to France and its a same process in rivers. French become the standard language in post of variety of dialogue. Catholics are dominant community so protestant are prosecuted and you hate England. The British hated France and French hated England. And of course the continent is a very similar model, in Poland the polish language is fundamental to creating a sense of citizenship so nationalism is define primarily by the language speak everyone must be the same language must be of the same faith so catholic’s in Poland. In Poland being a small country who your enemy was dependant on what century it could be Russia at one point of time it could be Germany at another point of time but again as in France and England and other countries across 19th century Europe nationalism was based as much on language an religion as on the identification of the common enemy against whom the citizens concentrated their energies their animosity the hatries. Now thats the European model of nationalism and i say this as a historian and i hope with a perfectly straight face that Pakistan is perfect European nation.

The origins of Pakistan lie in the sentiment that Muslim cannot live with Hindu so religion unlike the Europe religion comes before language but following the creations of Pakistan language becomes crucial. So it is first speech in Dhaka Mohammed Ali Jinnah tells the bengolies of east Pakistan that you have to learn urdu and of course Pakistan is united by hatreyed of india that is the European model of nationalism adopted by Pakistan by Israel and some other countries outside Europe but the special genius of Indian nationalism is that it did not privilege single language or a single religion. There have many who have contributed to this innovation you know there is a debate about different kind when the plastic surgery was invented in India. But I can tell you that Indian nationalism was a special kind of distinctive innovation and its modern its 20th Century started with the late 19th century but it found its flourishing and most compelling elaboration in the 20th century and many people contributed but Mohan Das K. Gandhi is above all. So in that model of nationalism the Indian adaption invention some would say distortion though i sake elaboration sophistication and European model of nationalism you did not have to subscribe to a single religion. Gandhi always said by the spoke of his party Indian national congress that it had parsi, chiristian, jain and muslim as well as Hindu president at the level of everyday life at the level of relations between citizens to the Gandhian model of nationalism never privilege the single religion in the city he lived and died for Hindu Muslim. Nor did he privilege a single language. When Gandhi came back from south Africa in 1915the congress was already 30 years old and the congress was organised on the basis of provincial units at these with the provinces of British India. so there was a Bombay presidency Congress, madras presidency congress, Bengal presidency congress, what Gandhi did was to change the organisation of congress into linguistic units so Karnataka congress, Maharahtra congress, gujrati congress, odia congress, tamil congress and kerela congress and so on and in 1920 he promised that India would become independent every major linguistic group would have its own provinces. So, nationhood was not identified because of single religion nor a single language and finally and most remarkably not even a single enemy. The great veitemi nationalists pochi mill is reported to have said that Mahatma Gandhi had been fighting with French he would have given non violence within a week.


Now that is a debatable question but what is very special about the Gandian model of nationalism apart from the fact that it not privilege a single religion or a single language is that you did not even have to hate the britishers to be good Indian nationalists. The many examples of Gandhi friendship with Charles freer Andrews his closest friend was an Englishmen. You know if you loved and advised Gandhi like many of his colleagues did you called him Bapu or Gandhiji if you distrusted Gandhi like many of his colleague did you called M.K Gandhi or Mr. Gandhi. Jinnah never called him mahatma and the communist never called him Mahatma either. The only person in adult life who called Gandhi Mohan was Charles freer Andrews and went beyond love or affection for an individual Englishmen. There is a wonderful story about the great Mumbai patriot Yusuf Maher Ali, you know there is a Mumbai connection in this room there is some people who remember Yusuf maher Ali. Distinguished Judges and lawyers sitting in the front row. Yusuf maher ali was one of the great forgotten figures of great Indian nationalism. He was someone who have coined the term quit india. He went to jail many times in the 1940. He was dying for cancer in 1946 his friends came since there was no proper cancer treatment in Mumbai. At that stage his friend raise money. He was there in early 40s to have treated in Newyork and there he met a friend the American writer Bruton wolf. Who tell the story of yusuf mehar ali, who he knows for 25 yrs. Suddenly being very gentle and soft words towards british. Here is a man who would be in jail 20,30,40, he had been harsh treated in Jail. He was in physical collapse in previous meetings with his American friend burton wolf, Yusuf Mehar Ali has always criticised the British but in 1946 he suddenly soft and sentimental towards them. Yusuf says Gandhiji always told us they are now going, so forget all the evils they did remember not only the good they did but what can they give us. The rule of law, the sense of fair play, the English language, Gandhi did not have the game of Cricket, i would have do it to. So this is really a special feature of Indian Nationalism.

Apart from what is well recognise that Pakistan nationalism, French nationalism, british nationalism, Israeli Nationalism, Indian nationalism does not have a privilege a single religion or a single language but he also does not privilege even the people who communised us for 200yrs we did not have to hate them. Now in 1920 at the time of the non cooperation movement the first major nation wide against colonial rule, when across cast, class gender and linguistic boundaries people across all over India united in opposition to British rule. And when it is for the first time a mass awakening of the possibilities of Swaraj emerge. Gandhi define Swaraj beautifully and i am going to give you the image by which he define Swaraj in 1921. It was still many years in the future. But he said when swaraj comes it will be like a Bed or a table with a 4 study posts and these posts are non-violence, Hindu Muslim Harmony, the abolition of untouchability and self reliance these 4 pillars hold up Swaraj. 30yrs after Gandhi define Swaraj in 1950 the Indian Constitution came into being and in a sophisticated, detailed elaborate legalistic way those 4 pillars of Swaraj were incoded established and given legislative and politically sanction. So the 4 pillars of the constitution were democracy which means not just free and fair election but also freedom of expression, in partial and autonomous institution. Democracy the abolition of cast and gender distinctions. I mean Gandhi did a great deal to abolition of cast distinction not perhaps enough to abolish gender distinction but that became crucial as the constitution. Religious and linguistic pluralism and economic self reliance. These were 4 of the central features of our constitution and these are elaboration of the Indian model of nationalism. If not invented by Gandhi elaborated and given shape by Gandhi. And what is crucial about this model of nationalism, as contrasted of other form of nationalism is that it is based on set of value and it is not based on language and it is not based on religion and it is not based on common enemy. It is based on set of value, democracy, abolition of cast and Gender distinction, religious and linguistic pluralism and economic self reliance. And the nation was sought to be united and given shape on the basis of these values.

Now I call this model of nationalism constitutional patriotism, I use this phrase last week in a talk I gave in my hometown Bangalore and a scholar in the audience ask me what was the difference between my use of the term constitutional patriotism and the way in which certain German philosopher use the term and I am not a particularly not a well read man I derived the concept of what I see around me and what I study about my country so I am going to give you of what I understand by constitutional patriotism and I am going to outline what I see as the 5 fundamental features of the founding model of Indian Nationalism of what I have term constitutional patriotism. 5 fundamental features the first feature is the acknowledgement and appreciation of our inherited shared diversity our culture social linguistic religious ethnic ecological diversity. The acknowledgement appreciation of our inherited and shared diversity is the first feature. I give tagore quote to illustrate this I had tagore several quotes but Justice already given us a wonderful Tagore quote. So another tagore i will save for later but to illustrate to this founding principle of constitutional patriotism, Indian patriotism. The acknowledgement appreciation of our diversity I am not give you a Tagore quote but I quote from a person who have almost in Tagore league. A person whose bust I have on my table the great kannada polimat k.Shivram Karanth. K. Shivram Karanth wrote when asked about whether we were Aryan nation he wrote it is impossible to talk of Indian culture as if it is monolithic object. Those who speak of Aryan culture do not realise what transformation this Aryan culture has undergone after reaching India. Mr. K. Shivram Karanth continued Indian culture today is so varied as to be called cultures. The routes of this culture go back to ancient times and it is developed through contact with many racist and many peoples. Hence among its many ingredients it is impossible to say surely what is native and what is alien. What is borrowed out of love and what has been imposed by force. If we view Indian culture thus concludes karanth we realise there is no place for chauvinism. What this first feature of constitutional patriotism.

This acknowledgment in a appreciation of our diversity inherited share diversity means is that no type of Indian is superior or special by language or faith. Indians is define by the allegiance to the values of the constitution not by birth or blood. That is the founding feature of Indian model of constitutional patriotism as understood by historian not by constitutional scholar or by lawyer as understood by historian. The second founding feature is the recognition of the multiple levels at which patriotism can and must be practice. Patriotism like charity begins at home by how you treat your children if you have boy or girl how you treat them. How you treat those who may work for you in the home. So it begin at home it goes out into the street the locality the city the district the province and the country. So it operates at different levels and these levels are complementary they do not clash. I am a proud resident of Banglore though i am not kannada speaking to be of Tamil origin in bengaluru the is again to be a gujrati speaker in Mumbai. You think you are from the city some people tell you youare not from the city. But my great grandfather my grand father and my father live and died in bengaluru so were i doing. I am patriot of bengaluru i am also patriot of my state. Today is the 1st November Karnataka rajya sabha day. It is 61st anniversary of my state founding. Around these days you find i am not in bengaluru, you will find Auto rickshaw driver flying the state flag. It is yellow and red flag. Its not the elites of light its ordinary kannidians. You can take pride in you street in your locality in your city in your country. These are perfectly complementary convergence and mutual reinforcing. So that I think is a second aspect of patriotism. Although patriotism can and must be practice at multiple levels although allegiance to a locality a district and province did not and absolutely does not does not conflict with allegiance to a country. I just got a lovely quotes i have why i think that you cannot be a world citizen this quote comes from a very great Indian john burdon sanderson Haldane, you can tell from his name that he was born Christian actually he was born Scottish and he spends first sixty year of his life as a citizen of England and migrated to India for a variety of reasons. He became the Indian citizen and than was a great professor. Among other things he was one of the 2 or 3 greatest biologists after diavin an Indian and Scottish person to became an Indian in 1956 and died here in 1964. In 1960 there was profile of Haldane in a famous American science magazine and in that profile he was describe as the citizen of the world. And Haldane had a great offence to them he says he wrote to the author of the article, he said


“No doubt I am in some sense a citizen of the world. But i believe with Thomas Jefferson that one of the chief duties of a citizen is to be nuisance to the government of his state. As there is no world state, I cannot do this.. On the other hand I can be, and am, a nuisance to the government of India, which has the merit of permitting a good deal of criticism, though it reacts to it rather slowly. I also happen to be a proud of being a citizen of India, which is a lot more diverse than Europe, let alone the U.S.A, U.S.S.R, or China and thus a better model for a possible world organisation. It may of course breakup but is a wonderful experiment. So i want to be labelled as a citizen of India.” Now these are words express the fact that diversity of india means you can express your citizenship at different levels which are complementary not conflicting. That is founding feature no. 2. Founding feature no. 3 of the Indian model of constitutional patriotism. The recognition that no nation, no state, no religion perfect or flawless. In her remarks as earlier justice mittal said that we can learn from legal judgements elsewhere Hinduism is not flawless, Islam is not flawless, india is not flawless and our prime minister is not flawless nor our chief ministers, who are some time more authoritarian than our prime minister can be. So this is the very important aspect for the model of constitutional patriotism, no state, no nation, no religion and no leader is flawless. M.K Gandhi famously spoke of having committed a Himalayan blunder rarely meet an ordinary Gandhian social activist who is committed in ordinary blunder. So i think this is extremely important you know that you have to learn from each other Gandhi again says somewhere in 1938 no nation can afford to be a frog in the well we are an in connected world and we have to see ourselves in the mirror of another likewise we are imperfect religion the reason had so many interactions with Christian priest and muslim divine this is lovely book those of you who are interested in Gandhi, one of the rarest most special book written about Gandhi is by an Andhra social worker call GORA G. Ramachandra Rao is called “An atheist with Gandhi” so your religion your country your state and you yourself is not flawless that you are continuously in a process of engagement improvement and eliminating weakness thats feature no. 3. Feature no. 4 of what i am calling the Indian model of Patriotism. Is the ability to feel shame at the failures of our nation and state, and the desire and will to correct them. Every true patriot feel shame at the failure of our society and the crimes committed by our state and this applies at multiple levels human rights violation by the police and occasionally by the army, corruption in the public institutions and in every day life above all by the persistence of cast and gender distinction the friend scholar lui domo many years ago call us Indians as “Homo Hierarchicus” at certainly in the way in which both in scriptures and social practice we have historically discriminated against low caste and women must bring shame to any sensitive honest Indian patriot and must bring the desire in the will to correct and illuminate those forms of exploits and discrimination. Thats what animated the life and work of Justice Sunanda Bhandare. So don’t be in denial that we are perfect thats point no. 3 recognise our failure, our mistakes our error our crimes and the persistence forms of discrimination and work to correct them thats is true patriotism. And finally true patriotism in my view also should have the ability to be rooted in one’s culture and country while being to learn from other cultures and countries.

And I am going to give you a tagore from 1908, to illustrate this. In 1908 Tagore was reacting to certain people in bengol and india who glorified the past who thought Hindus are invented everything of earth. At to these romantic nostalgic for a great and glorios past that we hidus’s allegedly enjoyed. Which made us otherwise we don’t have anything to learn from anyone else Tagore answer and i am going to quote his extraordinary words these are in English translation some of them of you read them in Bangla which is far even better than the English but the English is good enough so let me read out what Tagore has said in 1908. “If India had been deprived of touch with the West, she would have lacked an element essential for her attainment of perfection. Europe now has her lamp ablaze. We must light our torches at its wick and make a fresh start on the highway of time. That our forefathers, three thousand years ago, had finished extracting all that was of value from the universe, is not a worthy thought. We are not so unfortunate, nor the universe, so poor.” Now clearly these remarks applies to other countries of the world. American thinks they are chosen people i am glad they have adopted yoga. The were though they were chosen people when they ruled us they showed utter contempt for our food and music, even you can see decent food and decent music are in London now so like wise with us there is other quote of Tagore which i may not be able to find. Or may be Bengali scholars can help me but some where else he said something like this “We must glorying of an illumination of a lamp lit anywhere in the word.” So these are the 5 founding features of constitutional patriotism. Just to go over them very quickly.


1. Appreciation of our inherited and shared diversity.
2. The recognition of multiple levels at which patriotism and must be practised.
3. The recognition that no nation, no state, no religion perfect or flawless.
4. The ability to feel shame at the failures of our nation and state, and the desire and will to correct them.
5. The ability to be rooted in ones culture and country while being to learn from other cultures and countries.

This all model of constitutional patriotism is on the defensive some would say it was in tatters around the retreat, there is new model of patriotism that is emerging that is resurgent that is ascendant indeed that is dominant. What are the features of this new nationalism.
1. The privileging of a single religion : Hinduism
2. The privileging of a single language: Hindi
3. The privileging of a common external enemy : Pakistan

This completely mimics 19th Century European Nationalism. 19th Century European Nationalism as reborn in Pakistan in the Mid 20th Century and is being re re born in India in the early 21st century. But it also have some other features. Its not just the model of nationalism now in ascendant now seeking to be dominant not merely privileges Hinduism,Hindi and hater of Pakistan it also have a 4th feature which is perhaps even more disturbing which is branding of all critics as anti-national M.S Golwalkar, who is most influential leader of the R.S.S. who ran the organization from 19___ to 19___ wrote a book called a bunch of thoughts which kind of bible of the R.S.S some months ago i got the invitation of the senior R.S.S people in Karnataka i met them, i am happy to meet anyone. They presented me Golwalkar bunch of thoughts the way Christian missionary present you a bible so i read that book many times and i have written about it i read that book which was publish 50yrs ago and still be handed out to seek to people convert to your point of view in that book there are 3 chapters which are called internal threats to the nation
1. Muslims
2. Christians
3. Communists
Forms of the enemies of the nation muslim, Christians and communists now i am non of these i am not a muslim not a Christian not a communist but in the eyes of the many people i am the enemy of the nation regardless. What you have here is a paranoid and punitive form of nationalism there is film recent film called newton and in that film there is a lovely line which goes “Ye Desh Danda and Jhanda se Chalta hai”..........abhi nahi chalta hai lekin log chalana chahte hai this is a paranoid and punitive form of nationalism. Not only is it provoking identifying the nationalism with a single religion and a single language it is paranoid about foreigner and it is punitive about those who seek to revert or restore or rehabilitate the older form of constitutional patriotism. Should we call this patriotism or should we call this jingoism. The dictionary definition of a patriot is “A person who loves his or her country, esp. One who is ready to support its freedoms and rights and to defend it against enemies or detractors” considering the definition of dictionary of jingoism “ A nickname for those who supported an lauded the policy of Lord Beaconsfield in sending a british fleet into Turkish waters to resist the advance of Russia in 1878 hence, one who brags of his country’s preparedness for fight, and generally advocates or favours a bellicose policy in dealing with foreign powers, a blustering or blatant Patriot a Chauvinist” now this is very clear this is what the dictionary says and it also offer some quotes of the distinction between patriotism and jingoism it words of Irish philosopher George(Bishop) Berkeley, C. 1750: A patriot is one who heartily wisheth the public prosperity, and doth..also study and endeavour to promote it. A patriot is one who wishes for public prosperity for the prosperity of the Aam Admi and study endeavour to promote it. Now what is a jingoist, Gentleman’s Magazine,1881: The Jingo is the aggregation of the bully. An individual may be a bully; but, in order to create jingoism, there must be a crowd. An individual may be a bully the one jingoistic Neta addressing the crowd. The one T.V anchor reading metaphorically bombs on our enemies or on our internal enemies too. He is a bully but those who hear him appreciate him clap with him that aggregation the crowd constitute jingoism. One other definition of Jingoism from the Pall Mall Gazette, in 1885, The essential infamy of Jingoism was its assertion as the first law of its being that might was right.

Patriotism suffused with love and understanding.
Jingoism motivated by hate and revenge.
I have given you the constitutional features of patriotism. The constitutional features of jingoism is
1. The belief that one’s religion, culture, nation are infallible.
2. The demonizing of critics as anti-national, deshdrohis.
3. The violence and lumpenization on the street by which these ideas are sought to be enacted and imposed.

Now I have given you a perspective which will tell you which side I am on but that’s not enough I am a scholar. I must try and understand why jingoism is ascendant? And why Patriotism is on retreat. I am going to give you 4 reasons what I have define as Jingoism other call it Hyper Patriotism but why is it so influential, articulate, vocal in India today. There are 4 reasons I urge you to consider.

1. The first reason is the Hypocrisy of the left. You know India left is power in Tripura and in kerala and it also in a great deal of influence in our intellectual life in our cultural life. Many writers are Marxist many of our greatest script writer, poets, social activist have been Marxist but the Indian left and i say this as an historian again has always loved another country more than India. Now this goes back in 1920-30-40 but it is carried on till today for a long time it was the Soviet Union. Hence for the support of British is the Quit India movement. Hence the launching of the arms interaction by the CPI against the Indian State. 6 weeks after Mahatma Gandhi died because stallin has ordered them, so it is to be Russia then they became China some of you remember China is our Chairmen later on it became Vietnam, then it became Cuba there were some even albaria. When i was a student in Delhi University in 1970s there was a university professor who was a follower of a alebatian model of communalism and just as i have the collected works of Gandhi on my shelf he then had the collected works of Envohoka and still later it became Yugochwes who was worshiped in parts of JNU. Now its not that you cant love another country ofcourse you cant be a world citizen but as i have explain to you, you know you must love, appreciate, admire those features of other country that can enable you to realise and fulfil the values of their own country. I would like Cannadian public health, i would like American universities, but at the same time i would like to improve my country. The problem with the American left was not just the worship of another country. The worship of most brutal forms of dictatorship and dictators in those countries. Yugo Czeh for those of you think Narendra Modi is authoritarian and i am with you Yugo Czeh watch Narendra Modi on steroids and Stalin and Mao two greatest mass murderer of the 20th century. I have told you that i have friend from RSS i also tell you i have friend with CPIM and i meet both of them in the same place Koshy’s Parade Cafe in Bengloru on separate days several months apart but shortly after i met my friend from the RSS, i had a coffee with a very fine Marxist historian. Who is the member of the CPIM and told him i said look why is it that in the annual conference of the CPIM you have 4 portraits non of them are Indian they are 2 dead German philosophers Marx and Engels and two dead russain tyrants lenin and stalin. Atleast have Bhagat Singh and he said that i will take that to my General secretary and district committee and so on. So i think The Hypocrisy is of the left how they always loved another country more than India.

2. The Corruption of Congress Party, ho a great party and freedom movement was reduced to one family (the Mahatma Gandhi excepted). Yesterday was Patel’s birthday and as my distinguish and eminent colleague Gopal Gandhi says “The BJP has been able to misown patel because the Gandhi disowned patel” and he is absolutely right you know its shocking how the congress of Indira Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi name everything after their own family and its not patel he just disowned why could the Rajiv Gandhi sea link in worli have been name after a great maharashtrian congress women or congress men there is enormous range of choices there is Tilak there is Gokhale their if YV Chavan how is it that they seddeed even Lal Bahadur shastri to the Jingoist in this city 42yrs ago when Pakistan invaded India Lal Bahadur Shastri the at Ramlila Maidan as Prime Minister and he said on my right is Meer Mustaq Ahmed who was then president of Delhi Congress on my left is Frank Anthony who was a member of Parliament and member of the constituent assembly that is what make us different from Pakistan. A person like this, when Rahul Gandhi campaign for the last UP election was Shastri Mansion. An extraordinary figure he laid the foundation of the Green Revolution. He was the person of conspicuous total integrity and he was a constitutional patriot. So i think the corruption of the Congress not just financial corruptions but intellectual and moral corruption and particularly the reduction of the history of the great party of freedom struggle to the history, biography and personal interest of a single family gave ammunition to the Jingoist. Just as the anti patriotism of the left does

3. The 3rd and 4th reasons to explain or to seek to provisionally explain the rise of Jingoism are not Indian but global the 3rd is because of whatapp the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Pakistan started as a muslim homeland became an Islamic republic become more and more fundamentalist. They started by persecuting Hindus and Christians. Now they persecute shia’s , Ahmadi everyone. It is a truly a nasty place. Bangladesh is not there but it might get there. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan and Bangladesh again give ammunition to the rise of hindu fundamental of the India but jingoism and fundamentalism feed of one and another thats within the locality.

4. The fourth reason of course is the global rise of paranod and punitive form of nationalism, Poland hungary and all of the world.

The failures of the left and congress open up space for BJP, and global and regional forms of jingoism/fundamentalism encourage the rise of Hindutva to match or rival them. I am got an end with some remarks about hindutva which is as i understand it the philosophy of the ruling party. Which is not ruling just in delhi but in many parts of India. It claims to be authentically Indian those of us speaking in English language. I am mokali putra. Many of you in these room are mokali putris. In many respects it talks about routed in this country indigenously. And i am going to tell you as a historian utterly curious claim. Hindutva is partly European and partly middle eastern its partly Christian partly muslim. Again i am saying completely on straight face and i am going to give you a few facts to document this. The moral of nationalism practices is totally European 1 language 1enemy. Thats were 19th Century Europe is parts of its imagination. The political and social systems which to be impose on the other hand terms from medival middle east. In the medival middle east in Medina, muslim spain, automan turkey , Iraq. The political system was based on 3 kind of citizens. First class citizens were certified muslims who went to mosque every Friday, who believe that the Quran was the word of the god. And there is no prophet but mohammed.

They were the rulers the generals. The second class of citizens which is given the term Dhimmi was allocated to jews and Christians were also people of the book whose prophets are muslims also accept that they had greater own prophet now jews and Christians who called Dhimmis and Dhimmi literary means protected persons, protected by the state, effectively a second class citizen with certain rights, denied other rights and opportunities. A jew and Christians in medival turkey or Iraq could practise his profession could raise his family, but could not become king advisor, general, vice chancellors. Now this is clearly the model by which the jingoist of today want to impose on the muslims of chiristan and india. The Muslim and Christian of India of today will be like the Jews and Christian like the medival islam. So there is nothing indigenous about this great indigenous philosophy is partly European and is partly Islamic. It will damage us culturally. It will also damage us economically. So there are these 2 forms of nationalism, Patriotism and Jingoism. Patriotism as i have define and articulated to you had certain features. Which were encoded in the constitution. Which animated not just the freedom struggle but political social and legislative life through much of history as a republic and thats the reason we are here together. On the other hand for a variety of reasons including the failures of its own adherence the hypocrisy and corruption of the political parties that claim to carry on this model of constitutional patriotism you have the rise of jingoism. And that the debate so to say the battle before us today. Its a battle between a paranoid punitive hate full form of nationalism on the one side and the other the heredity of the freedom and the Indian constitution. The first party in this battle has a party. The second party in this battle does not have a party. Thats my view and i think many of you would agree with it. Although there is no political value vehicle for constitutional patriotism, the patriotism that build united nurtured best values best individuals Justice Bhandare and best institutions of this country. Those of us who are constitutional patriots should non violently, clearly, consistently carry on the struggle for the best values of our constitution every day of our life.

Thank you very much.................